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Obstructive hydrocephalus causes

Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet National Institute of

Hydrocephalus may be present at birth (congenital) or may develop over time as a result of injury or disease (acquired). Except for hydrocephalus secondary to physical obstruction of CSF passages within the brain or skull by blood or tumor, the exact causes of hydrocephalus are still not well understood Risk Factors of Obstructive Hydrocephalus This condition can be caused by numerous circumstances and conditions and can affect any person at any age. The condition is most common in adults over the age of 60 or in young children; it is estimated that 1 in 500 children are affected by the condition

Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus can be treated in a variety of ways. Based on the underlying etiology, the condition may be treated directly by removing the cause of CSF obstruction or indirectly by diverting the excess fluid. Hydrocephalus is most commonly treated indirectly by implanting a device known as a shunt to divert the excess CSF away from the brain Hydrocephalus is a complex, chronic condition that can develop for a variety of reasons, sometimes as part of another condition. You can be born with it or acquire it from brain tumors, infections of the brain or a brain injury. It may also develop it as part of the aging process In acute obstructive hydrocephalus, as is the case with a colloid cyst obstructing the foramina of Monro, a sudden increase in intraventricular pressure can lead to rapid loss of consciousness and even death The most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct the long, narrow passageway between the third and fourth ventricle or cavity of the brain. This condition may result from a blockage, infection, hemorrhage, tumor or arachnoid cyst Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo occurs when a stroke or injury damages the brain and brain matter actually shrinks. The brain may shrink in older patients or those with Alzheimer's disease, and CSF volume increases to fill the extra space. In these instances, the ventricles are enlarged, but the pressure usually is normal

Obstructive Hydrocephalus: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Metastatic disease to periventricular brain tissue can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced in the ventricles to the subarachnoid space where it is normally absorbed by arachnoid granulations. This typically causes an obstructive or non-communication hydrocephalus Non-communicating hydrocephalus — also called obstructive hydrocephalus — occurs when the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is blocked along one or more of the narrow passages connecting the ventricles An excess of pressure on the brain is potentially harmful; thus hydrocephalus can cause permanent brain damage and even death. However, with appropriate treatment, most patients are able to lead normal lives with few limitations. Obstructive hydrocephalus can occur in patients of any age from infants to the elderly

Hydrocephalus - Causes, Symptom and Surgical Treatment

For obstructive hydrocephalus, endoscopic surgery is performed to create an internal bypass, allowing the fluid to escape the inside of the brain and equalize the pressures. This procedure is known as an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. In many patients, this is a durable treatment and forgoes the need for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt Most commonly, obstructive hydrocephalus is caused either by a mass in the brain which blocks the flow of fluid, such as a brain tumor, or some scarring or malformation which narrows or completely blocks part of the flow of fluid. These are often termed rings or webs Reversible obstructive hydrocephalus from hypertensive encephalopathy It is imperative to recognize such cases where hypertension causes edema within the posterior fossa resulting in secondary hydrocephalus. Focusing management on lowering blood pressure avoids unnecessary or prolonged CSF diversion

Congenital hydrocephalus applies to the ventriculomegaly that develops in the fetal and infancy periods, often associated with macrocephaly. The most common causes of congenital hydrocephalus are obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct flow, Arnold-Chiari malformation or Dandy-Walker malformation. These patients may stabilize in later years due. Including our case, the literature research identified 16 reports in the Medline database for 18 patients presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a DVA including our case. In approximately 60% (10/17) of cases, the stenosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus was present in the cerebral aqueduct

Noncommunicating hydrocephalus, or obstructive hydrocephalus, is caused by a CSF-flow obstruction. Foramen of Monro obstruction may lead to dilation of one, or if large enough (e.g., in colloid cyst), both lateral ventricles They often cause obstructive hydrocephalus and commonly are treated with surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Intraventricular May block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causing pressure to build up ( obstructive hydrocephalus ), which can produce headaches, wooziness, and changes in [brainsciencefoundation.org Obstructive Hydrocephalus Obstructive hydrocephalus causes the typical symptoms of raised intracranial pressure—namely, headache, nausea, drowsiness, and visual deterioration due to papilledema (and eventual optic atrophy). From: Principles of Neurological Surgery (Fourth Edition), 201

Hydrocephalus that develops in adults and children (acquired hydrocephalus) is often caused by an illness or injury that affects the brain. Hydrocephalus that develops in older people (normal pressure hydrocephalus) may also be the result of an infection, illness or injury, but in many cases it's not clear what causes the condition Hydrocephalus also can occur when there is no known injury or illness to cause it. Hydrocephalus can be classified according to its cause: Obstructive (non-communicating) hydrocephalus is caused by a blockage in the system of cavities (ventricles) in the brain. The blockage prevents the cerebrospinal fluid from flowing (or communicating) with. Hydrocephalus is an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) within and around the brain, which can due to excess fluid production, obstruction to its flow, and inadequate absorption[1] If left untreated, the excess fluid can cause increase the pressure put on the skull and brain, which can be damaging[2] Non-communicating hydrocephalus - also called obstructive hydrocephalus - occurs when the flow of CSF is blocked along one or more of the narrow passages connecting the ventricles. One of the most common causes is aqueductal stenosis, a narrowing of the aqueduct of Sylvius, a small passage between the third and fourth ventricles in the middle. True fetal hydrocephalus has a variety of causes. The most common form of isolated, obstructive hydrocephalus is so-called aqueductal stenosis, which is the blockage of CSF passage through the aqueduct of Sylvius. It accounts for up to 20 percent of cases of fetal hydrocephalus

Causes of obstructive hydrocephalus are classified as congenital or acquired. Acquired hydrocephalus usually occurs when a disease process, such as a brain tumor, hemorrhage or inflammation, occludes the flow of CSF. Congenital hydrocephalus is a common distinct entity in some toy and brachycephalic breeds (e.g. Boston terrier, cavalier King. Hydrocephalus is dilatation of the cerebral ventricles. This dilatation has a variety of causes, the common denominator of which is obstruction of CSF flow. Approximately 600-700 ml of CSF is produced daily by the choroid plexuses. From the lateral ventricles, CSF enters the third ventricle through the foramina of Monro and then flows into the. Hydrocephalus, or water on the brain, is a condition where a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain causes increased pressure in the skull. It can be present at birth or develop later in life Imaging tests can help diagnose hydrocephalus and identify underlying causes of the symptoms. These tests may include: Ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging, which uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images, is often used for an initial assessment for infants because it's a relatively simple, low-risk procedure. The ultrasound device is placed.

PPT - Emergency Evaluation of Hydrocephalus Shunt Patients

Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by a birth defect or genetic disorder; acquired hydrocephalus has other causes, such as a hemorrhage, infection, or tumor. 1 Obstructive hydrocephalus is caused by an obstruction of CSF drainage by a tumor, congenital defect, or infection. 6 Most cases of hydrocephalus are obstructive. Communicating. The fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO) is a rare but well-established cause of obstructive tetra-ventricular hydrocephalus, characterizing with dilatation or large cerebrospinal fluid collection of the foramen of Magendie and foramen of Luschka. Hydrocephalus is classified as noncommunicating and communicating based on whether all ventricular and subarachnoid spaces are communicating

PPT - Hydrocephalus PowerPoint Presentation, free download

Discover Causes of Hydrocephalus and 5 Types of Hydrocephalu

Communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus can produce parkinsonism that may be relieved with ventricular shunt placement. 1 Clinical features include bradykinesia, rest and postural tremor, loss of postural reflexes, rigidity, and bradyphrenia. Signs of dorsal midbrain impairment such as lid retraction, convergence-retraction nystagmus, light-near dissociation, and forced downgaze may. Causes of Obstructive Hydrocephalus. Obstructive hydrocephalus can be the result of any condition that blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid including: Head trauma; Stroke; Bleeding or clots in the brain (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage) Infections that affect the central nervous system (e.g., encephalitis or meningitis

What causes hydrocephalus in a child? Hydrocephalus is rare. It may be caused by any of these problems: The fluid is blocked from flowing through your baby's head. Your baby has problems absorbing the fluid. Your baby makes too much fluid (rare) This condition can be congenital. This means that your baby is born with it Causes of Hydrocephalus in Dogs . Hydrocephalus is caused by an obstruction or decreased absorption of normal CSF flow. In dogs with congenital hydrocephalus, the problem is something the puppy is born with. What exactly causes this abnormality in puppies while they are developing is not always known Congenital hydrocephalus is when a child is born with an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. This excess fluid causes an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles (ventriculomegalia) and can create a harmful pressure on brain tissue. Symptoms of hydrocephalus vary and may include an. The most common causes of obstructive hydrocephalus are. Aqueductal stenosis. Dandy-Walker malformation. Chiari II type malformation. Aqueductal stenosis is narrowing of the outflow pathway for CSF from the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle. It may be either primary, or secondary to scarring or narrowing of the aqueduct resulting from a tumor.

Obstructive hydrocephalus Radiology Reference Article

Hydrocephalus in patients with NF-1 is not a very rare coexistence, and an incidence from 1% to 5% has been published as in the literature. 11 -14 In the past, the main cause for hydrocephalus associated with NF-1 was reported as posterior fossa tumors. 13 This finding can be attributed to the early diagnosis of tumors before hydrocephalus. Google+. Answer. Causes of hydrocephalus in adults include: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes one third of these cases by blocking the arachnoid villi and limiting resorption of CSF. However. noncommunicating (or obstructive) hydrocephalus. Basics: An obstruction within the ventricular system blocks the flow of CSF, leading to a localized upstream backup of CSF. For example, obstruction of the fourth ventricle will cause CSF to accumulate in the lateral and third ventricles Obstruction at the level of the aqueduct causes a non-communicating hydrocephalus. Obstruction to CSF flow at the level of the arachnoid villi causes a communicating hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture is not contraindicated, in fact, it may be diagnostic as well as therapeutic in those with a communicating hydrocephalus where pressures are freely. Communicating hydrocephalus (non-obstructive hydrocephalus) is caused by inadequate reabsorption of CSF. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal enlargement of the spaces in the brain called ventricles. This causes potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain

Congenital Hydrocephalus Conditions UCSF Benioff

  1. Hydrocephalus may be described as either communicating, in which the obstruction to the flow of CSF occurs outside the brain ventricles, or noncommunicating (also called obstructive hydrocephalus), in which the obstruction to the flow of CSF occurs within the ventricles. In rare cases communicating hydrocephalus arises from overproduction of CSF and thus does not involve a blockage of flow of.
  2. Hydrocephalus can result from obstruction of the ventricular system, irritation of the ventricle (from inflammation or hemorrhage), increased size of the ventricles due to loss of brain parenchyma (hydrocephalusex vacuo), be present without an obvious cause (congenital), or rarely, be the result of overproduction of CSF associated with a.
  3. For obstructive hydrocephalus, the prognosis is extremely dependent on the cause of the obstruction and the therapies pursued. For example, a patient with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to an infectious process often has a good prognosis if the underlying infection is treated successfully and the CSF buildu
  4. What causes hydrocephalus? H ydrocephalus may be present at birth (congenital) or may develop over time as a result of injury or disease (acquired). Except for hydrocephalus secondary to physical obstruction of CSF passages within the brain or skull by blood or tumor, the exact causes of hydrocephalus are still not well understood

Dizziness & Nystagmus & Obstructive Hydrocephalus Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Arnold-Chiari Malformation. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search Severe vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia as a cause of obstructive hydrocephalus: A case report. Lee JM(1), Park JS, Koh EJ. Author information: (1)Department of Neurosurgery, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea Aqueductal stenosis is a narrowing of the aqueduct of Sylvius which blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular system.Blockage of the aqueduct can lead to hydrocephalus, specifically as a common cause of congenital and/or obstructive hydrocephalus.. The aqueduct of Sylvius is the channel which connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle and is the narrowest part. Congenital obstruction causes primary obstructive hydrocephalus. The most common site of obstruction is at the level of the mesencephalic (middle brain) aqueduct. Prenatal (before birth) infections may cause aqueductal stenosis (narrowing) with subsequent hydrocephalus. This may result in considerable disruption of the architecture of the brain Non-communicating (obstructive) hydrocephalus may present acutely and manifest as non-specific symptoms including but not limited to headache, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, coma and death. 5.

Adult-onset Hydrocephalus - Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hydrocephalus caused by metastatic brain lesions

Hydrocephalus merely denotes an increase in the volume of CSF and thus of the cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly).. Although hydrocephalus is typically referred to as either being obstructive or communicating, this can lead to confusion as to the underlying cause of ventriculomegaly as the terms are referring to different aspects of the underlying pathophysiology (namely why and where) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is one of the few causes of dementia that can be controlled or reversed with treatment. If symptoms and results from an evaluation and MRI point to normal pressure hydrocephalus, a high-volume spinal tap may be used to identify if an individual has the potential to benefit from surgical insertion of a shunt Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an uncommon and poorly understood condition that most often affects people over the age of 60. It can sometimes develop after an injury or a stroke, but in most cases the cause is unknown. Mobility problems, dementia and urinary incontinence are the main symptoms of NPH

Hydrocephalus is a condition that involves the build-up of cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a fluid that is produced in the cavities of the brain known as the ve.. Aqueductal stenosis - The most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is an obstruction called aqueductal stenosis. This occurs when the long, narrow passageway between the third and fourth ventricles (the aqueduct of Sylvius = cerebral aqueduct) is narrowed or blocked, perhaps because of infection, hemorrhage, or a tumor References. Answer. SAH can cause hydrocephalus by 2 mechanisms: obstruction of CSF pathways (ie, acute, obstructive, noncommunicating type) and blockage of arachnoid granulations by scarring (ie. Typical hydrocephalus as seen on a brain CT. The lateral ventricles (black areas in the middle of the brain) are abnormally large and filled with fluid. Obstructive hydrocephalus cause by a posterior fossa cyst in a 12 month old. Patient presented with loss of developmental milestones. Physical Exam to assess for papilledema or neuro defects

Hydrocephalus - Symptoms And Causes

A characteristic pattern of signal alteration within the body of the corpus callosum can occasionally be seen in patients scanned after shunting for obstructive hydrocephalus. The cause of injury to the corpus callosum in these cases is most likely related to a relatively long-standing compression of the fibers of the corpus callosum against. When a colloid cyst does cause issues, it most commonly causes obstructive hydrocephalus. Colloid cysts can cause various symptoms including headaches, diplopia, memory issues and vertigo 9) . Rarely colloid cysts have been cited as a cause for sudden death 10) Hydrocephalus, a condition first described by Hippocrates, is the abnormal rise in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and, usually, pressure, that results from an imbalance of CSF production and absorption.Hydrocephalus is classified as communicating hydrocephalus and non-communicating hydrocephalus. In communicating hydrocephalus (also referred to as nonobstructive hydrocephalus), full. Hydrocephalus (from Greek hydro-, meaning water, and cephalé, meaning head) is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. This causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and may cause progressive enlargement of the head if it occurs in childhood, potentially causing convulsion,tunnel vision, and mental. Hydrocephalus had complex pathogenesis and multiple causes. There are four main types of hydrocephalus: obstructive, communicating, hypersecretory, and NPH. Hydrocephalus may be classified as congenital and acquired. Most tumors can obstruct the ventricular system and cause hydrocephalus. Removal of the tumor usually resolves the hydrocephalus

Different Types of Hydrocephalus Advanced Neurosurgery

An obstruction within the brain is the most frequent cause of congenital hydrocephalus. Acquired hydrocephalus may result from other birth defects such as spina bifida , conditions related to prematurity such as intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain), infections such as meningitis , or other causes such as head trauma, tumors. Obstructive hydrocephalus treatment depends on the severity and the cause of the condition. If the condition is caused by a temporary block, and no symptoms have formed from the condition, then there may be no requirement for intervention

Obstructive Hydrocephalus - Atlanta, GA - Spine Surger

  1. Background: Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is an inflammatory, often paraneoplastic neurologic disease affecting the brainstem, diencephalon, and limbic system. Avidly-enhancing mass lesions are described in anti-Ma2-associated-encephalitis, and caused obstructive hydrocephalus in this patient. Design/Methods: NA
  2. Hydrocephalus can happen if: The flow of CSF is blocked (called obstructive hydrocephalus). Not enough CSF is absorbed into the bloodstream (called communicating hydrocephalus). What Causes Hydrocephalus? Causes of hydrocephalus include: spina bifida: when a baby's spinal cord does not fully develo
  3. Hydrocephalus Causes. The cause of hydrocephalus varies depending on the type. Causes of Congenital Hydrocephalus. Aqueductal stenosis: This is the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus.It involves the narrowing or blockage of an area of the brain known as the Cerebral Aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius) - a narrow tube between the third and fourth ventricles in the brain (see picture below)
  4. Hydrocephalus caused by aqueductal developmental venous anomaly is extremely rare. We describe a case of a 47-year-old man who presents with short-term memory impairment who was found to have a developmental venous anomaly draining bilateral medial thalami through a common collector vein that causes aqueductal stenosis and obstructive.
  5. a of Luschka and Magendie causes obstructive hydrocephalus, whereas an obstruction outside the ventricular system causes communicating hydrocephalus. Increased CSF production is rare and may occur with choroid plexus papilloma

Acquired Hydrocephalus: Develops often as a result of injury to the brain. Bleeding in the brain is another cause of acquired hydrocephalus. Infections such as measles or meningitis can also cause hydrocephalus. Arrested Hydrocephalus: At some time there has been increased pressure causing enlarged ventricles, but it did not progress. It is the. Obstruction is within ventricular system or in subarachnoid space; Acute obstructive hydrocephalus may cause rapid rise in intracranial pressure (ICP), rapidly leading to death or permanent cerebral damage; Nonobstructive hydrocephalus causes subacute symptoms and is a potentially treatable form of dementi

Obstructive Hydrocephalus - Birmingham, AL - Spine and

Obstructive hydrocephalus occurs when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain is physically blocked. This leads to an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid and increased pressure in the head that can cause headaches, problems with vision, nausea and vomiting, loss of bladder control, imbalance, memory loss or other symptoms Dusp16 Deficiency Causes Congenital Obstructive Hydrocephalus and Brain Overgrowth by Expansion of the Neural Progenitor Pool @article{Zega2017Dusp16DC, title={Dusp16 Deficiency Causes Congenital Obstructive Hydrocephalus and Brain Overgrowth by Expansion of the Neural Progenitor Pool}, author={K. Zega and Vukasin M. Jovanovic and Zagorka Vitic. Hydrocephalus Causes. The three main causes of hydrocephalus are: A blockage.Tumors, cysts, birth defects, and other objects in the brain can block or affect the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid The most common causes of obstruction include infectious meningitis, ventriculitis, ependymitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and carcinomatous meningitis. As the CSF becomes more viscous with a higher protein concentration, the arachnoid villi lose their ability to reabsorb the fluid. This causes hydrocephalus with dilation of the ventricular system Neurologists and neurosurgeons treat hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus, commonly referred to as water on the brain is the result of cerebrospinal fluid buildup or obstruction. Cerebrospinal fluid accumulation can increase pressure and cause mental, behavioral, and physical changes. Neurologists can diagnose and medically treat hydrocephalus

Causes and Types of Hydrocephalus Under normal conditions, a delicate balance exists between the production, circulation, and absorption levels of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain's ventricles. Hydrocephalus is the result of an imbalance of the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid Acquired hydrocephalus is most commonly treated by either removing the cause of the condition, such as a tumor or other blockage, or inserting a shunt. The shunt is a flexible plastic tube that diverts excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen where it can be absorbed back into the body

Pathophysiology. Hydrocephalus can also be classified into non-communicating (obstructive) and communicating (non-obstructive):. Obstructive hydrocephalus is caused by a blockage to the natural ventricular drainage system and CSF flow; Communicating hydrocephalus is due to reduced absorbance of CSF by the arachnoid villi (or rarely due to increased CSF production Hydrocephalus develops when cerebrospinal fluid can't flow through the ventricular system, or when absorption into the bloodstream isn't the same as the amount of cerebrospinal fluid produced. There are two types of hydrocephalus: obstructive and communicating. Both types of hydrocephalus can cause increased pressure within the brain In noncommunicating hydrocephalus there is an obstruction at some point in the ventricular system. The cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus usually is a congenital abnormality, such as stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, congenital atresia of the foramina of the fourth ventricle, or spina bifida cystica

Although benign, colloid cysts can cause sudden ventricular obstruction leading to rapid onset hydrocephalus and transtentorial herniation resulting in sudden death. Approximately 50% are asymptomatic. Headache is the most common presenting symptom. Due to the risk of sudden ventricular obstruction, even for cysts of small sizes, most colloid. Hydrocephalus that is congenital (present at birth) is thought to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Aqueductal stenosis, an obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct, is the most frequent cause of congenital hydrocephalus. As of 2001, the genetic factors are not well understood Abstract. Hydrocephalus is a complex condition involving mechanical or functional impairment of cerebrospinal fluid flow. While most common causes of obstructive hydrocephalus occur within the ventricular system, scarring and inflammation within the cisterns of the subarachnoid space can lead to obstruction of CSF flow and subsequently diffuse ventricular enlargement One of the causes that leads to the appearance of this form of communicating hydrocephalus is the subarachnoid hemorrhage. The obstruction can either be acute or chronic. The acute obstruction can be because a blood clot occupies the basal cisterns, while the chronic one is caused by the scarring of the subarachnoid space, along with the. The medical examiner determined that the cause of death was complications of hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Aqueductal stenosis is blockage of the aqueduct, the canal through which intracranial fluid drains from the ventricles. Blockage can lead to obstructive hydrocephalus and increased ICP and is very dangerous

Although hydrocephalus was once known as water on the brain, the water is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -- a clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the spaces in the brain called ventricles. This dilation causes potentially harmful pressure on the tissues. Hydrocephalus is a condition of the brain where there is a pressure-induced deterioration of brain functions. It does not go away on its own and needs special treatment. Hydrocephalus is due to the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cavities deep within the brain. These cavities are called ventricles. Excess CSF increases the size of the ventricles, increasing the pressure on the. The accelerated tumor growth due to sex hormone receptor expression in pregnancy causes aggravation of the pre-existing symptoms or development of new symptoms [22, 23]. This makes the pregnant women prone to compression of the cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Absence of Guidelines or Recommendation