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Nursing metaparadigm articles

Re-conceptualizing the nursing metaparadigm: Articulating

Through an analysis of articles introducing and critiquing Fawcett's metaparadigm, I argue for a re-conceptualized metaparadigm that articulates nursing's ontology. What exists for the nursing discipline are not already-demarcated metaparadigm domains, but rather interdependent, dynamic relations that constitute people, including nurses, in. Nursing metaparadigms were first classified by Fawcett (1978) into the following categories: person, environment, health, and nursing. The human factor metaparadigm refers to individuals in a definite culture, family, and society. The environment metaparadigm characterizes all regional, national, and global cultural, social, political, and.

Metaparadigm concepts comprise the central issues in a discipline. Fawcett has named person, health, environment and nursing as the four main concepts of nursing that need to be comprehensively defined. The Human Caring Theory is significant because of its focus on the spiritual dimension of human b Nursing science is a body of knowledge arrived at through theory development, research, and logical analysis. Nursing and other supporting theories are essential to guide and advance nursing practice. The art of nursing practice, actualized through therapeutic nursing interventions, is the creative use of this knowledge in human care from the nursing culture or training, working experiences and values influencing our observations of events and situations. They are our basis to make key nursing concepts [14]. Margaret Newman knows nursing as a moving profession from integrated and continual roles, and the inte-grated and holistic nursing is in circulation as a new paradigm [15] A metaparadigm refers to a conceptual outline, within which all related concepts and theories develop. It is an all-inclusive, encompassing unit. The metaparadigm of nursing would, hence, include and explain all the concepts and theories related to the field of nursing. Learn more about this concept with the help of this article

Nursing Students' Perceptions of Nursing Metaparadigms: A

  1. A metaparadigm is a set of concepts and propositions that sets forth the phenomena with which a discipline is concerned. In simple terms, it is all the features that go into a single framework — or everything that goes into being a nurse. The metaparadigm of nursing offers a holistic approach to care
  2. The nursing metaparadigm offers insights concerning the nature in which the nursing profession should be set up and properly functioning. From the nursing perspective, the concept of the metaparadigms consists of four attributes including the patient as an entity, the patient's environment, the well-being and health of the patient, and the responsibilities of the nurse (Alimohammadi et al.
  3. Nursing Metaparadigms and Practice-Specific Concepts Since Florence Nightingale, there have been a number of so-called grand theories of nursing advanced, and these grand theories have been used by other nursing theorists to conceptualize metaparadigms of practice that continue to influence clinical practice today
  4. Person, Nursing, Environment, and Health - the four main concepts that make up the nursing metaparadigm. Person. Person (also referred to as Client or Human Beings) is the recipient of nursing care and may include individuals, patients, groups, families, and communities
  5. A metaparadigm is a set of theories or ideas that provide structure for how a discipline should function. For a nursing discipline, these theories consist of four basic concepts that address the patient as a whole, the patient's health and well-being, the patient's environment and the nursing responsibilities
  6. Original Article The main nursing metaparadigm concepts in human caring theory and Persian mysticism: a comparative study Lida Nikfarid1*, Nasrollah Hekmat2, Arash Vedad3, Anahita Rajabi3 1Assistant professor, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  7. The metaparadigm of nursing involves the person, health, environment and nursing. These four components are the key areas of focus when it comes to patient care. The first part of the metaparadigm of nurse theory is person that not only refers to the patient himself or herself, but it also includes the patient's family members and friends.

Nursing Metaparadigm. Creating a nursing philosophy requires an understanding of the nursing metaparadigm. Hardy (1978) introduced the use of paradigms to nursing to share a comprehensive description of the profession. The nursing metaparadigm is the foundation for nursing knowledge and philosophy (Fawcett, 1984) and its four concepts, listed. The central concepts and themes of the discipline of nursing are identified and formalized as nursing's metaparadigm. Examples illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. Refinements of the metaparadigm through conceptual models and programs of nursing research are proposed. Citing Literature To illustrate this nursing philosophy, the four nursing metaparadigm concepts are described in relation to nursing as both a science and an art. Nursing science and art are also discussed in relation to nursing as a profession. The concepts of family-centered care and developmental care highlight the practice of nursing as an art Nursing Metaparadigms according to Patricia Benner Person (Patient): Benner believes that as nurses develop experience they view patients as whole parts rather than separate pieces. As Benner writes, The holistic understanding of the proficient nurse improves his or her decision making. Decision making is now les Author(s): Bender, Miriam | Abstract: Jacqueline Fawcett's nursing metaparadigm-the domains of person, health, environment, and nursing-remains popular in nursing curricula, despite having been repeatedly challenged as a logical philosophy of nursing. Fawcett appropriated the word metaparadigm (indirectly) from Margaret Masterman and Thomas Kuhn as a devise that allowed her to organize then.

Nursing metaparadigm and person-centered care. August 11, 2014. Yulin Chu, N.P. The metaparadigm of nursing distinguishes nursing from any other discipline such as biology, sociology, or psychology (Jonson et al., 2012). Initial consensus on the metaparadigm concepts in nursing was proposed by Fawcett in 1984 Deep connectivity between the elements of both metaparadigms: love and care, communion and relationship, and gift and practice. Conclusion. The connection between the spiritual and nursing metaparadigms is real in nursing education, practice and management because of the holistic character of spirituality Metaparadigm concepts comprise the central issues in a discipline. Fawcett has named person, health, environment and nursing as the four main concepts of nursing that need to be comprehensively defined. The Human Caring Theory is significant because of its focus on the spiritual dimension of human beings. The aim of this study was to comparatively explain three of the main metaparadigm. metaparadigm , nursing theory , nursología , nursology , Spanish language Search for Similar Articles You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search The nursing metaparadigm has been a commonly accepted but critically debated component in the structure of nursing knowledge. It originated in part from scholars' analyses of nursing education curricula ( Yura & Torres, 1975 ), disciplinary subsets of nursing ( Walker, 1971 ), and nursing conceptual models ( Fawcett, 1978 )

This paper focuses on the four nursing paradigms which are comprised of person hea!t~ en11ironment, and nursing. Each metaparadigm plays a key role in the nursing process and is essential when providing patient care. The paper compares and contrasts three nursing theorists' individual interpretations of the four nursing metaparadigms. Jean Watson is a modern day theorist who developed the. Introduction. A metaparadigm is a system of theories and concepts by means of which discipline can properly and effectively function. A nursing metaparadigm allows nurses to deliver high-quality services, paying attention to all necessary aspects of the patient's conditions Abstract. Background & Aim: The four elements of the nursing meta-paradigm, namely, human, health, environment, and nursing have attracted much attention in the West for years.This study redefined the meta-paradigm or core concepts of nursing from the perspective of Islam. Methods & Materials: A qualitative content analysis was used to collect and analyze data This column on Philosophical Issues introduces a conceptual innovation, the midparadigm, designed to facilitate continued development of nursing knowledge while moving beyond the metaparadigm.The midparadigm is a conceptual structure lower in abstraction than a metaparadigm consisting of an organization of concepts that reflect shared scientific and practical values for theory development in. Nightingale's philosophy includes the four metaparadigm concepts of nursing (Table 2-1), but the focus is primarily on the patient and the environment, with the nurse manipulating the environment to enhance patient recovery. Nursing interventions using Nightingale's philosophy are centered on her 1

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The main nursing metaparadigm concepts in human caring

The 4 Metaparadigms in Nursing as defined by Patricia Benner. Patricia Benner described nursing as an enabling condition of connection and concern (Marriner-Tomey, 1989, p192) which shows a high level of emotional involvement in the nurse-client relationship. She viewed nursing practice as the care and study of the lived experience of. Amplia selección de marcas. Envío gratis con Amazon Prim Metaparadigm concepts comprise the central issues in a discipline. Fawcett has named person, health, environment and nursing as the four main concepts of nursing that need to be comprehensively defined. The Human Caring Theory is significant because of its focus on the spiritual dimension of human beings Metaparadigm of Nursing Nursing metaparadigm refers to the four basic concepts central to the discipline: nursing, person, health, and environment. Nursing is a caring practice that constantly changes. This constant change requires responsiveness of the nurse(s) to ensure the provision of quality care to clients

in nursing practice. The purpose of this article is to describe each major nursing paradigm, demonstrate the connection between nursing paradigms and nursing theory, and use case examples to illuminate the contributions of pragmatism to nursing practice. Keywords: paradigm, theory, nursing, philosophy, pragmatism. This paper is an attempt to explore the conceptual basis and characteristics of various paradigms in nursing. It will exemplify how nursing theories and models fit within a certain nursing paradigmatic classification. Therefore, this paper will also present an example of how various nursing theories fit within the totality and simultaneity paradigms This paper is a report of an interview about the metaparadigm of nursing and the influence of the metaparadigm on the professional identity development of students enrolled in an online RN-BSN program. Full text links . Read article at publisher's site (DOI): 10.1177/0894318412466734

What are the major nursing theories? Four major concepts are frequently interrelated and fundamental to nursing theory: person, environment, health, and nursing. These four are collectively referred to as metaparadigm for nursing. Person, Nursing, Environment, and Health - the four main concepts that make up the nursing metaparadigm The nursing metaparadigms involves the delivery of optimum care for optimal outcomes for the patients through mutual relationship and understanding in a safe environment (Branch et al 2016). Mutual understanding and care cannot be achieved by the nurse practitioner only, but through coordination with the doctors and other healthcare providers Nightingale's documents contain her philosophical assumptions and beliefs regarding all elements found in the metaparadigm of nursing. These can be formed into a conceptual model that has great utility in the practice setting and offers a framework for research conceptualization Nursing assistants are those with 4-year secondary school vocational education. Currently we have 72% (n = 12,387) nursing assistants and 28% (n = 4,871) of nurses in Slovenia (National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2014). Nurses with diploma and master's degrees are both often involved in holistic patient care as.

Metaparadigm Concepts Department of Nursin

  1. The phenomenon of Nursing is only focused on the nurse. Phenomenon of Nursing: this nursing metaparadigm concept is related to the art and science of nursing; it consists of nursing actions or nursing interventions. Think of this concept as what nurses DO. This concept includes the nurse applying professional knowledge, procedural and technical.
  2. A personal philosophy of nursing in practice. Nursing philosophy, as described by Reed (2012), is a statement of foundational and universal assumptions, beliefs, and principles about the nature of knowledge and truth (epistemology) and about the nature of the entities represented in the metaparadigm (p. 41).My personal philosophy of nursing, which describes precisely what nursing means.
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  5. Nursing Theory and Research -Paradigm and Metaparadigm. 1921 Words8 Pages. Introduction: According to Polit and Hungler (1997) paradigm is a way of looking at natural phenomena that encompasses a set of philosophical assumptions and that guides one's approach to inquiry (pg. 463). Metaparadigm, on the other hand, is a statement or group of.
  6. Caring is an essential component in nursing which should be a central concept in nursing practice. While metaparadigm identifies common areas of concern, a paradigm is a particular way of viewing the area of concerns the metaparadigm has defined (Daniels,2004). Kuhn (1970) identified paradigms as a worldview of the areas of concern in a.

Theoretical advances in nursing have been complicated by polarization and extreme positions regarding nursing's approach to its main metaparadigm concepts: person, health, environment and nursing. In this paper, the authors deconstruct some of the central arguments that are used to further this polarization Nursing has always been defined by four overarching concepts (i.e., our metaparadigm): nursing is what we do; person is the focus of what we do (i.e., who we do it to); health is the goal of nursing; and environment is the context in which we nurse. The core of all nursing theories is examining and elucidating these four concepts to explain and.

Ida Jean Orlando

Understanding the Metaparadigm of Nursing Theories - iBuzzl

Metaparadigm is the vast perspective of a discipline and a way to describe a concern specifically to a profession or department (Alligood, 2014b, p. 42). Alligood (2014b) explains metaparadigms in nursing knowledge are human beings, environment, health, and nursing (p. 42). These perceptions are exemplified in each philosophy and conceptual. Feb 2, 2018 - The four basic metaparadigm concepts address the patient as a whole, the patient's well-being, the patient's environment and the nursing responsibilities The four metaparadigms of nursing include person, environment, health, and nursing. The metaparadigm of person focuses on the patient who is the recipient of care. What are the four paradigms? Social theory can usefully be conceived in terms of four key paradigms: functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist, and radical structuralist. The. While the metaparadigm concepts of nursing, person, health and environment form the foundation of the Conceptual Framework, the following integrating concepts shape the curriculum: client environment, critical thinking, quality and safety, nursing process, communication, role development, relationship-centered care and collaboration an

Theory of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing. In Peplau's (1952/1991/1997) theory, nursing is defined as an interpersonal, therapeutic process that takes place when professionals, specifically educated to be nurses, engage in therapeutic relationships with people who are in need of health services.Peplau theorized that nurse-patient relationships must pass through three phases in order to be. The metaparadigm of nursing makes nursing a unique field of practice when compared to any other profession. By understanding what each of the four concepts of the metaparadigm mean and how they relate to nursing, it can help promote better quality of care. In return, by providing quality care, a patient can have an increase quality of life Theory of Humanbecoming and the Nursing Metaparadigm. (by Kate MacDonald) Person -. A holistic view of person is utilized for viewing patients. Humans are greater than the sum of their parts (Wu 2008), and so medical knowledge of how the body and organs function and dysfunction does not necessarily give understanding for what will happen to a. Paper Topic:How does the nursing metaparadigm impact the implementation of culturally proficient nursing care? Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay onNursing MetaparadigmJust from $13/PageSubmission Instructions:The paper is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.

Nursing Metaparadigms There have been countless nursing theories introduced since Florence Nightingale's Environmental Theory, including Imogene King's Theory of Goal and Dorothy Johnson's Behavioral System Model. What they all have in common is they center around the nursing metaparadigm This article explores conceptual connections between nursing and spirituality and advocates for a progressive spiritualization of nursing. It explains why the spiritual holistic metaparadigm of love, communion, and gift is deeply related to th The Metaparadigm for nursing is the framework for the discipline that sets the. Read More. Critical Analysis Paper On Nursing 1442 Words | 6 Pages. purpose of this paper is to reflect upon my original definition of nursing metaparadigm concepts critically, and to determine if any changes in my perception towards practice have occurred. The. metaparadigm of nursing is the way in which the professional discipline of [nursology] delineates and makes public its particular nature and distinguishes itself from the natural, social, and human sciences. Kim also pointed out that public articulation of the metaparadigm of nursology is necessary because the metaparadigm serves as th

Nursing Metaparadigm Concepts and Theor

The four metaparadigms of nursing include person, environment, health, and nursing. The metaparadigm of person focuses on the patient who is the recipient of care. This may encom- pass things such as a person's spirituality, culture, family and friends or even their socioeco- nomic status Assignment: Metaparadigm Theories of Nursing. The American Nurses Association (ANA) is always working to advance the nursing profession by fostering high standards of care. The association describes the principles, scope of practice, and social duty of nurses. The ANA uses the nursing process as its basis for standards of care. These standards includes assessment, diagnosis, outcome. The art and science of nursing is supported and promulgated by a multitude of theories, conceptual models, and theoretical frameworks. Each theory, conceptual model, or theoretical framework addresses the concepts of the nursing metaparadigm (e.g. nursing, person, health, and environment) in unique ways The person as a nursing metaparadigm represents an individual who is unique with their own set of values, ideologies, and beliefs. According to Jean Watson, every person has their own sets of ideas and sets of needs, and it is imperative to honor and accept the needs of the individual irrespective of the surrounding forces (Branch et al. 2016)

Therefore, the scoping review excluded grand nursing theory, middle range nursing theory, practice nursing theory;nursing conceptual models, andnursing metaparadigm as well as metatheory not specific to nursing, but concentrated on psychology, sociology, business, computer science, or education.Also, articles excluded if nursing metatheory not. Metaparadigms of nursing are concepts or theories that provide the structure for how the discipline of nursing should operate. Person Metaparadigm The person here is the patient who is receiving care from the nurse, they are the main focus of the discipline. The person is dynamic and unique in aspects of their personal beliefs, ideologies and.

DEFINITION NURSING METAPARADIGMS. Just from $13/Page. Order Essay. Order Plagiarism-Free Answer. Continue to order Get a quote. Post navigation. Response #1 to nursing DB. demonstrate your ability to critique one quantitative or qualitative nursing research article of interest from any refereed nursing journal nursing theories, metaparadigms, and ways of knowing full copy. This paper discusses metaparadigms and paradigms concepts applied in nursing and ways of identifying nursing theories. The nursing field is complex for an individual to define since it is evolving, dynamic and extensive study involving theoretical as well as practical skills Nursing Metaparadigms. Person: Person is defined as a human being. Both the nurse and the patient are human beings. Health: Health is subjective and objective. Subjective health is an individually defined state of well being in accord with self-appraisal of physical-emotional-spiritual status

nursing is the poor clinical observation and least integration of theoretical concepts into clinical practice. Although theories has been taught in many nursing institutions of Pakistan, but the theory integration into nursing practice has not been tested yet. There is barely any literature about utilization o The Adaptation Model of Nursing was developed by Sister Callista Roy in 1976. After working with Dorothy E. Johnson, Roy became convinced of the importance of describing the nature of nursing as a service to society. This prompted her to begin developing her model with the goal of nursing being to promote adaptation Hire Writer. We will write a custom essay sample on Four Concepts of the Nursing Metaparadigm specifically for you. FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9 /page. Hire Writer. I told her that I believed that even a deceased individual should still be treated with dignity and respect, however she disagreed open access articles on nursing theories and models. Faye Glenn Abdellah's Theory. Twenty-One Nursing Problems . INTRODUCTION. Nursing is based on an art and science that mold the attitudes, intellectual competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people , sick or well, cope with their health.

nursing metaparadigm - Academic Nerd

The metaparadigm of nursing is an art and science to provide growth and development of nursing knowledge and skill acquisition for new and experienced nursing professionals. Nursing knowledge and experience should be a continual development and is vital to the nursing and academic discipline of the nursing profession Several scholarly articles have discussed the tenets of the nursing metaparadigm, and such sources will be integrated into the explicit articulation of my personal philosophy in nursing. The paper also discusses some of the changes that have happened in my personal nursing philosophy and the factors that have been impacting those changes Metaparadigm Concepts. The metaparadigm concept is a model that displays the connection between the environment, people, health, and nursing (Francis, 2017). The environment consists of the surroundings, both internal and external, that affect a patient (Kozier, 2000). The people or the individuals are the recipients of nursing care (2000) A metaparadigm is commonly described as a set of concepts and propositions that set forth a general statement of a discipline. The central focus of the profession of nursing is developed around the idea of providing different dimensions of care to individuals in need by use of science and the promotion of health The nursing profession is anchored on the four concepts as they inform nursing theory, knowledge and practice (George, 2011). This article discusses advanced clinical care as a practice of the nursing profession by applying the four concepts. The nursing metaparadigm play a critical role in the advanced clinical care practice

While nursing is a profession dedicated to helping others, the highly charged nature of many of the environments in which nurses work can lead to situations where emotions boil over. Incivility, bullying, and violence in the workplace are serious issues in nursing, with incivility and bullying widespread in all settings considered as the metaparadigm of nursing theories by many nursing theorists. These four core concepts are identified in both Orem's and Roy's models. 4.1 Person Orem views a person as a physical, social, and psychological character with inconsistent degrees of self care abilities Metaparadigm Concepts of Nursing Introduction Nursing metaparadigm is the group of theories which reflects and incorporates the thread of the philosophical assumptions and also defines the method to those assumptions. Metaparadigm involves in it the four major concepts which are environment, health, nursing and person. The purpose of this.

In the process of nursing development, four key metaparadigms were identified, which were formed historically and became the basis to which many specialists adhere. These notions include the concept of patient, nurse, health, and environment. Each of these metaparadigms has its distinctive features and is an essential component of nursing 28 January 2005. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators. Authors: Reza Negarandeh, Fatemeh Oskouie, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Mansoure Nikravesh and Ingalill Rahm Hallberg. Content type: Research article. 1 March 2006. The importance of professional values from nursing students' perspective

In the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics, it is clearly designated that nurses must be first obligated to their patients and providing respectful, fair, and equal care to all people.In the Code's latest revision, there is special reinforcement of our obligation to social justice and the profession's responsibility to integrate principles of justice into nursing and health policy October 10, 2017 by Cathy J. Thompson. Assumptions, beliefs, and values are terminology used when describing the foundation of nursing theories. Theories are used to describe, explain, and predict nursing phenomena, that is, the nursing metaparadigm concepts. Nursing theory is the theorist's worldview or personal perspective of how the. Explain how the four metaparadigm concepts (person, health, nursing and environment) relate to the concept of nursing international vs nursing united states of America JOURNAL; Duff, E (2011). Relating the nursing paradigm to practice. A teaching strategy. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 8(1), 1-9. JOURNAL: Castledine, G. (2010). Creative nursing. Art or science.

Introduction to nursing theories🌈 Betty neuman systems model metaparadigm

education in nursing model will help nurses better articulate and test best educational practices in the clinical practice setting. PEN Theory vTo fully address the practice complexities of nurse educators, the concept of education needs to be included in the traditional nursing metaparadigm of person, health, nursing and environmen The purpose of nursing having a metaparadigm is to develop a framework that defines nursing's specific body of knowledge and to establish nursing as a stand-alone discipline (Lee & Fawcett, 2013). In 1978 Fawcett originally developed a set of four metaparadigm concepts central to nursing that included human beings, environment, health and.

Nursing Metaparadigm Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles

The key concepts of nursing's metaparadigm are the relationship of the person, health, environment, and nursing. This metaparadigm along with nursing theories and principles of teaching/learning are fundamental to nursing practice. In learning more about these concepts and different nursing theories I have come to find that as a nurse when I. Incorporating The Metaparadigm Of Nursing Nursing Essay. Healing must be total or holistic if health must be restored or maintained. And a nurse-patient relationship is the very foundation of nursing Conway et al 2011; Johnson, 2011. The Theory recognizes a person's needs above all Introduction. The purpose of this Assignment is for you to present your views, values, and beliefs about the four concepts of the nursing metaparadigm (i.e., person, nursing, health, and environment) and their interrelationship to one another as they guide your currentnursing practice. The process of identifying a personal nursing philosophy of. (Nursing, 1996). The patient may require special requests outside the expected spectrum of nursing care, and therefore, communication and accommodation are key to becoming a nurse characterized by transculturalism. 3 Busher Betancourt: Madeleine Leininger and the Transcultural Theory of Nursing Published by EngagedScholarship@CSU, 201 Essay on nursing metaparadigm concepts for leadership dissertation literature review Official estimates of a new weightlifting exercise is going to rely on the smaller phrase. Graduate students table 1. for compari son, the caffeine of a curriculum design does not identify the subject, envision cooperative learning environment should be.

Dorothea Orem & Imogene King

Nursing Theories & Theorists: An Ultimate Guide for Nurses

Choose a metaparadigm or concept based on your nursing philosophy to add to your conceptual model. Explain why you chose to add that metaparadigm. Analyze how the added metaparadigm will change the way you practice. Cite at least three scholarly articles as evidence for the needs of your practice population. Format your assignment as one of the. Link the theory you developed in Weeks 2 and 5 with the Metaparadigm of Nursing. Each of the elements of the Metaparadigm should be represented in your theory. Revise your theory if necessary to include each of the components of the Metaparadigm. Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA from within the last 5 years

Florence Nightingale Quotes Holistic HealthNursing Theories: LEININGER'S THEORY OF CULTURE CAREDorothy Johnson: Behavioral System Model (Study Guide

This discussion question focuses on the four nursing paradigms, which are comprised of person, health, environment, and nursing. Each metaparadigm plays a key role in the nursing process and is essential when providing patient care. Select one metaparadigm (person, health, nursing, or environment). Describe the metaparadigm's significance. Concept Of Nursing Metaparadigm Concept Of Nursing Metaparadigm Nursing Theory Identify your specialty area of professional practice (Use Family Nurse Practitioner). Select a nursing theory from the list of specialty track specific theories provided in the lesson plan or one of your own findings (Use the Synergy Model of Patient Care) Jean Watson's Meta-paradigm of Nursing Jean Watson's Metaparadigm of Nursing Introduction For centuries, the progress of nursing understanding has been influenced by several theorists and their relevant theories. These theories have guided, and continue to guide, nursing research, practice, and education Education. Dr. Carl O. Helvie was born in Gouvemeur, New York, in 1932. He was always headed for a career in nursing, which was quite unusual for the time. Upon graduating from high school in 1954, he went to work for a hospital in Rochester, New York, where he was awarded his R.N in 1958. From there, he became head nurse at Bellevue Hospital.