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Basement shear wall design

Shear - Shear gebrauch

Shear beim führenden Marktplatz für Gebrauchtmaschinen kaufen. Jetzt eine riesige Auswahl an Gebrauchtmaschinen von zertifizierten Händlern entdecke Design Heute bestellen, versandkostenfrei Shear Design Assume a 12 inch thick wall Concrete shear strength: for a longer wall, approaches ∞ (conservative) is 1.0 for normal weight concrete (Sec 8.6.1) using a unit length approach, so b0 = 12 in/ft assume d = 9.5 inches based on #8 bar and 2 inches of cover (conservative for smaller bars • Siding shear walls 2306.3 Wood structural panel shear walls. Wood-frame shear walls. Wood structural panel Wood-frame shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA SDPWS. Wood structural panel shear walls are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowabl minimum length of a shear wall panel generally ranges from 4' to 8' of wall with no openings. For the design of shear walls with openings, the designer has the option of using the segmented, perforated, or force transfer around openings classifications. Of the classifications analyzing shear walls discussed two are the most often adopted

5. Shear Wall Analysis and Design - spWall Software spWall is a program for the analysis and design of reinforced concrete shear walls, tilt-up walls, precast wall and insulate concrete form (ICF) walls. It uses a graphical interface that enables the user to easily generate complex wall models. Graphical user interface is provided for and floors. A shear wall, however, is a vertical, cantilevered diaphragm. A diaphragm structure results when a series of such vertical and horizontal diaphragms are properly tied together to form a structural unit. (See Figure 1.) When diaphragms and shear walls are used in the lateral design of a building, the structural system is termed a.

You have to take all the forces for design of walls, axial, shear, lateral earth/water pressure. But usually walls are quite strong in compression and you can assume pinned connection of basement wall with floor. That way you design only for lateral earth/water pressure with propped-cantilever condition (fixed at base, pinned at top) Basement Retaining Wall Sheet no./rev. Basement 5 Calc. by AK Date 22/09/2014 Chk'd by Date App'd by Date Design of retaining wall stem Shear at base of stem; Vstem = 16.8 kN/m; Moment at base of stem; Mstem = 140.3 kNm/m Compression reinforcement is not required Check wall stem in bending Reinforcement provided; 12 mm dia.bars @ 50 mm centre Retaining Wall Design 10 Editionth A Design Guide for Earth Retaining Structures Contents at a glance: 1. About Retaining Walls; Terminology 2. Design Procedure Overview 3. Soil Mechanics Simplified 4. Building Codes and Retaining Walls 5. Forces on Retaining Walls 6. Earthquake (Seismic) Design 7. Soil Bearing and Stability 8. Designing the. For your walk-out basement, the diaphragm would be subjected to sustained loading from earth. A lot depends on the layout of the structural walls and openings in the floor. RE: Walkout basement foundation design. BAretired (Structural) 6 Jun 12 10:03. If your plan view is to scale, your diaphragm appears to have a length to width ratio of about 2

Basements and Seismic Base Shear. kevinwschmuhl (Structural) (OP) 5 May 06 17:15. I am designing an apartment building with three levels of wood framing above 1 story of below grade parking. I expect to use 12 thick concrete basement walls on all four sides of the basement parking garage. The top of the 8 thick concrete podium slab supporting. Concrete Strength al\൯ne for an 10 thick wall with #5@10 and 2.5 clear to strength steel will only reduce the nominal moment capacity of the secti對on from 136.68 to 135.66 inch-kips \⠀㄀─尩 if the concrete strength decreased from 3.5 to 3.0 ksi The support provided by shear walls does, however, create a design obstacle for architects. Whether the support against lateral forces is thanks to sheathing covering the frame or from other braces within it, any windows or doors must be limited in terms of the total area of the shear wall (and in some uses can't be used at all) The shear wall is a concrete wall constructed from the foundation level to the top of the building. The thickness and the length of the walls are determined as per the design requirements. Typically, shear walls are constructed as lift core walls and around the staircases The screen-grid ICF wall system is similar to a waffle-grid ICF wall system without concrete webs Structural Design of Insulating Concrete Form Walls in Residential Construction 1-3 Concret

Design - Design Restposte

  1. cantilever sheet-pile walls, sheet-pile bulkheads, braced cuts, and other similar structures. The proper design of those structures required estimation of lateral earth pressure, which is a function of several factors, such as (a) type and amount of wall movement, (b) shear strength parameters of th
  2. Overview of the procedure for basement retaining wall design. Discussion of the backfill pressures, fixity at the base, and reinforcement
  3. (walk-out basement) STUD KNEEWALL UNBRACED AT TOP OF FOUNDATION - DESIGN AS A RETAINING WALL. Foundation drainage • Design of Wood Structures, D. Breyer, K. Fridley, & K. Cobeen • Design/Construction Guide - Diaphragms and Shear Walls, APA - Th
  4. imized by the shear walls due to the impact of lateral forces caused by earthquakes. The construction of shear walls will provide great rigidity to buildings causing damage to the structure
  5. Suggested limits on wall or building height are given in Table 1. Test data (refs. 2, 3 and 4) have shown that the strength of dry-stack walls exceeds the strength requirements of conventional masonry, and thus the recommended allowable stress design practices of the code can be used in most cases

Seismic pressures on non-yielding walls 5. Seismic pressures on basement wall by Dr. G. Wu 2 . Typical Retaining Walls Design of Retaining Walls Alternative soil pressure diagram for an anchored wall G = shear modulus In this video step by step illustration of design of Shear wall in ETABS is given. It is very easy to understand. Please watch the full video that you can cl.. In Equation 16-16, 0.6 D is permitted to be increased to 0.9 D for the design of special reinforced masonry shear walls complying with Chapter 21. 1605.3.1.1 Stress increases. Increases in allowable stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or the referenced standards shall not be used with the load combinations of Section 1605.3.1.

Shear walls can be designed with special end-zone reinforcement that greatly increases the bending capacity of the wall with minimal increase in reinforcing steel area. Earth retaining structures can be designed with reinforcement placed off-center to optimize the capacity of retaining walls and basement walls An engineer will optimize a shear wall's design to meet the specific demands of a house, which will dictate details like nail size and nailing schedule, hardware placement, and blocking size and orientation. LATERAL: The primary lateral force from an earthquake or high-wind event causes simultaneous uplift, compression, and sliding forces 3.1 Segmented Shear Wall - Wind 110 3.2 Segmented Shear Wall - Seismic 114 3.3 Perforated Shear Wall - Wind 116 3.4 Perforated Shear Wall - Seismic 119 (F'b) , adjusted shear design value (F'v), adjusted tension design vaue (F't) and modulii of elasticity (E' and Emin') for the member using both Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and Load and.

Guidelines for Design of Reinforced Concrete Wall. 1. The limiting slenderness () if any for unbraced wall is 30 and for braced wall is 45. 2. For short braced RC wall (< 12), P u = 0.4 x f ck x A c + 0.67 x f y x A st. 3 A 20m high, 3.5m long shear wall is acting as both a lateral and vertical support to a 4-storey building. There are 6 columns between it and the next shear wall. Design the reinforcement in the wall at its base and mid-height. Floor slabs frame into it at 3.2m centres and are 200mm thick

Permanent Wood Foundations | JLC Online | Basement

DESIGN OF BASEMENT & SITE RETAINING WALLS ISSUE: Building Code Section 1805.5 requires foundation walls to be designed in accordance with Chapters 19 or 21 for concrete or masonry, respectively. Section 1610.1 requires retaining walls to be designed to resist the soil loads in Table 1610.1, unless otherwise specified by a soils investigation this is video that help you how to assign soil pressure load into basement of wall in Etabs model . You can use internal force as moment M22 , M11 and M12 fo.. pounds per foot of wall experienced by an 8-foot basement backfilled with sand or gravel. To handle the load, the taller wall in the heavier soil will require a much stouter design. So the ability of a tall basement wall to hold up against soil pressures, espe-cially in poorly drained silt or clay soil, is not something you can take for granted The shear wall carries service dead and live loads of 10 kips/ft and 12.5 kips/ft respectively. The allowable soil pressure is 5000 psf. The wall footing is to be based 5 ft below the final ground surface. Design the footing for flexure, shear and allowable soil pressure. Figure 1 - Reinforced Concrete Wall Footing Geometr and floors. A shear wall, however, is a vertical, cantilevered diaphragm. A diaphragm structure results when a series of such vertical and horizontal diaphragms are properly tied together to form a structural unit. (See Figure 1.) When diaphragms and shear walls are used in the lateral design of a building, the structural system is termed a.

Feb 17, 2018 - Explore Mr Taylor's board SHEAR WALLS on Pinterest. See more ideas about shearing, wall, civil engineering However, the effect of the shear walls in the basement on the shear forces are relatively smaller than the effect of the infill walls. The change on the shear force for the column S124 is 13% due to the infill walls while 4.5% due to the partially surrounded basement shear walls. interior walls. If shear reinforcement is required for in-plane strength, s shall not exceed the smallest of 3h, 18 inches, l w /3. 11.7.2.3 For walls with thickness greater than 10 inches, except single story basement walls and cantilever retaining walls, distributed reinforcement in each direction shall be placed in at least two layers, on

6-4. Section A through Wall Stiffener. 7-1. M/Vd Ratios for Shear Walls. 7-2. Shear Wall Deformations. 7-3. Deformation of Shear Wall With Openings. 7-4. Relative Rigidities of Piers and Spandrels. 7-5a. Wall Deflection Chart. 7-5b. Wall Deflection Chart. 7-6. Design Example 1 Wall Elevation. 7-7. Design Example 2 Wall Elevation. 8-1 • Design Tools • Case Studies • Designers are continually getting asked to do more with less in modern structures; shear walls are no exception to this demand. With more openings and larger lateral forces, segmented shear wall approaches do not always produce the most efficient structural design Both perpendicular and parallel shear should be checked, however, perpendicular shear is rarely a controlling factor in the design of masonry walls and parallel shear is not usually a controlling factor unless the foundation is partially or fully above grade (i.e., walk-out basement) with a large number of openings ARCH 331 Note Set 27.1 F2015abn 417 Foundation Design Notation: a = name for width dimension A = name for area b = width of retaining wall stem at base = width resisting shear stress bo = perimeter length for two-way shear in concrete footing design B = spread footing or retaining wall base dimension in concrete design cc = shorthand for clear cove M max = maximum moment in the basement wall (Nm) The position of the max. moment in the basement wall can be calculated as. d m = 0.42 h s (2e) Example - Earth Pressure on Basement Wall. A basement wall with height 2.5 m is backfilled with sand. The Poisson's ratio for sand is 0.29 and the coefficient of earth pressure can be calculated a

in place concrete basement wall as equivalent in lateral load/shear resistance to any of the allowable wood-framed wall bracing materials. To determine the required bracing for a walk out basement first draw a rectangle around the entire floor plan and projections as if all of the walls are wood-framed buildings are provided with shear walls hence I included shear wall in my model. The main objects of this study were to investigate the behavior of multi storey building with and without basement walls with shear wall effect. For the study two models of G+12 storey buildings with two basements along with shear wall are considered BASEMENT: A basement is any story below the lowest story above grade. BASE SHEAR: Total design lateral force or shear at the base. BOUNDARY ELEMENTS: Diaphragm and shear wall boundary members to which the diaphragm transfers forces. Boundary members include chords and drag struts at diaphrag

Basement Wall Design - Concrete Design - Structural

Walkout basement foundation design - Structural

The design of the lateral load resisting systems in high-rise structures is very often governed by the requirements of drift control. This is true even in buildings with relatively rigid lateral systems that include shear walls. Appropriate modeling of the effective stiffness properties of shear walls thus plays a Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Foundation Design 14-6 Load Path and Transfer to Soil Vertical Pressures - Deep EQ Motion Overturning moment This example of tall building with shear wall continuing through deep basement shows that the horizontal and vertical forces can be resisted b This value is about 4.5 times the adjusted allowable design shear capacity predicted by use of the NDS equations. Similarly, connections using 5/8-inch-diameter anchor bolts at 6 feet on center (all other conditions equal) were tested in full shear wall assemblies; the ultimate shear capacity per bolt was found to be 4,400 pounds

Basements and Seismic Base Shear - Structural engineering

DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL - Compression member - In case where beam is not provided and load from the slab is heavy - When the masonry wall thickness is restricted - Classified as o plain concrete wall, when rein. < 0.4%. o Reinforced concrete wall, when rein. > 0.4%. Load from slab is transferred as axial load to wall It is suitable for bearing walls and shear walls of low- to medium-rise structures. Its thermal conductivity is one-sixth or less that of conventional concrete, making it energy efficient. Its fire rating is slightly longer than that of conventional concrete of the same thickness, making it useful in applications where fire resistance is important Chapter 3 - Design Loads for Residential Buildings Typical Load Combinations Used for the Design of TABLE 3.1 Components and Systems1 Component or System Foundation wall (gravity and soil lateral loads) Headers, girders, joists, interior load-bearing walls and columns, footings (gravity loads) Exterior load-bearing walls an having a car parking facility provided at basement and ground floor. The building have a shear wall around the lift pit. The modelling and analysis of the structure is done by using STAAD. Pro 2007, and the designing was done manually. Design of beam, column, slab, shear wall, stair case, retaining wall, water tank and an isolated footing are done

The exterior basement columns failed in shear at the level of the windows; although Gur et al. reported that damage occurred to masonry infill walls in the basement of the building, there was no mention of damage to the earth-retaining concrete walls of the basement. Gur et al. also reported on light damage to lateral basement walls of Exterior walls of woodframe construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side.

What Is a Shear Wall and Why Do Buildings Need Them? MT

  1. Numerical Analysis of Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls Using the Nonlinear Truss Approach Scott A. Williams Abstract Reinforced masonry (RM) shear walls are a common lateral load-resisting system for building structures. The seismic design guidelines for such systems are based on relatively limited experimental data
  2. Deformation in building with shear wall Design Example of Shear Wall: Data Given : Height of Shear Wall = 3 m. Length of Shear Wall = 4 m. Thickness of Wall = 100 mm. Carrying Load = 600 KN/m. Grade of Concrete - M20. Grade of Steel - Fe415. Solution : Since cross walls are provided, the wall is braced. So, h/t = 3000 / 100 = 30 mm. l/t.
  3. ARCH 331 Note Set 27.1 F2012abn 1 Foundation Design Notation: a = name for width dimension A = name for area b = width of retaining wall stem at base = width resisting shear stress b o = perimeter length for two-way shear in concrete footing design B = spread footing or retaining wall base dimension in concrete design

All About Shear Wall [Design Considerations] - Structural

  1. R602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4)
  2. Dynamic Earth pressures - Myths, Realities and Practical Ways for Design : October 2012 Force Diagram of Subsurface Walls - Static Conditions ground surface groundwater Applicable loads at-rest earth pressure surcharge stress from surface loading compaction stresses from Duncan's method (1991 and 1993) U = buoyancy due to water tabl
  3. ETABS is an engineering software product that caters to multi-story building analysis and design. Modeling tools and templates, code-based load prescriptions, analysis methods and solution techniques, all coordinate with the grid-like geometry unique to this class of structure
  4. For shear wall design bending moments is calculated according to the section 4 of the TBDY 2018 7.6.2.2. Critical shear wall height is automatically calculated and used in the curve in order to generate the design moment values. The details can be viewed in the reinforced concrete shear wall reports

Basement Retaining Wall Structural Design Overview - ASDIP

Each vertical concrete shear wall, three feet wide and 12' long, ex-tends the full height of the build-ing. The steel props intersect the walls at the top floor. Each wall and pair of props are anchored in a common basement shear wall. This basement wall stands on a series of three-foot diameter by 50' deep drilled piers. Seismic forces are. Aim: To run the analysis and design the RCC shear walls shown in the etabs model. Step 1: 1) Open the ETABS file 2) After the analysis click Concrete frame design Step 2: 1) Need to check there is any failures occurs 2) Click Shear wall design tool 3) select Display info and choose PM failure Step 3:. Read more Engineers and architects frequently show a shear key at the joint between a footing and a basement wall. Shear keys are used to resist lateral forces such as earth and water pressures, earthquakes, and wind. Although a shear key cast as part of the wall is the most frequently specified connection, there are other ways to resist shear Cantilever Retaining wall with shear key. Photos of Retaining walls 5. Classification of Retaining walls Design of Shear key-Contd., 1 Reinforcement of 'continuous' basement shear walls with industrial wire meshes Usually, in the perimeter of the building, in the storeys above the ground, there is a seismic joint (30 to 100 mm), or thermal insulation (30 to 50 mm) which are not required in the basement

The foundation wall of a building may be a cast-in-place concrete retaining or basement wall or a structural wall complete with load-bearing pilasters. Materials used may be concrete or reinforced masonry. The foundation wall system may include an earth retention system of soldier piles and wood lagging or shotcreted rock requiring. A well-engineered shearwall resolves the lateral (wind and earthquake) forces on a house and directs those forces to the foundation, where they are resisted by the concrete and the ground. The magnitude of these natural forces varies depending on the region, proximity to seismic zones, exposure to wind, etc. Most people don't realize that. tial basement walls, and the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (Ref. 4) recommends a contraction joint spacing of 30 times the wall thickness, or 20 feet for an 8-inch-thick wall (30 8 = 240 inches = 20 feet). Some designers recommend re-ducing joint spacings by about 20% in walls with frequent openings, such as doors and windows. Gener shear failures. Dead loads is the weight of the structure and its permanent parts. The weight of the foundation itself and the weight of the soil on the footing are also dead loads. In estimating dead loads for purposes of foundation design the actual weights of construction materials must be used

30-foot, 6-inch-long walls running in the transverse building direction. The purpose of this design example is twofold: 1. To demonstrate the design of a solid reinforced concrete wall for fl exure and shear, including bar cut-offs and lap splices. 2. To demonstrate the design and detailing of wall boundary zones This entry was posted in Excel sheets and tagged Excel Sheets, shear wall design, shear wall design excel sheet, spreadsheet by CIVILENGINEERSPK. Bookmark the permalink. 3 Replies to Shear wall Design Excel sheet based on ACI 318-02 mafotita on July 9, 2014 at 14:00 said

A basement is typically defined as a portion of a building that is partly or design procedures are used to design the connections between the foundation system and Floor diaphragms and shear walls (in-place lateral and overturning loads) 0.6D + (W or 0.7E Calculates an opaque wall or fenestration U-factor based upon the Total UA alternative compliance method permitted by the International Code Council's 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) or International Residential Code (IRC).This new Energy UA Calculator is consistent with AWC's Design for Code Acceptance 7, Meeting Residential Energy Requirements with Wood-Frame. CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 1 / 8 Design a reinforced concrete retaining wall for the following conditions. f'c = 3000 psi fy = 60 ksi o Development of Structural Design Equations. In this example, the structural design of the three retaining wall components is performed by hand. Two equations are developed in thi

Shear Wall: Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantage

The diaphragm wall was founded on bedrock. Shear pins were installed at the base of the diaphragm wall to enhance the kick-out stability of the cofferdam. The basement slabs and pile caps of existing basement were demolished during subsequent bulk excavation of the diaphragm wall cofferdam. The construction of diaphragm wall commenced in. 3 5Oct Paul Gregory Bending and Shear in Beams 4 12 Oct Charles Goodchild Analysis 5 19 Oct Paul Gregory Slabs and Flat Slabs 6 26 Oct Charles Goodchild Deflection and Crack Control 7 2 Nov PaulGregory Columns 8 9 Nov Jenny Burridge Fire for the design of retaining walls For shear wall (both piers and spandrels), the flexural and axial behavior is modified by either f11 or f22 depending on the orientation of the local axis and the shear behavior is controlled by f12. In column and code terms f11 or f22 would correspond to modifications of EI or EA and f12 would correspond to modifications to GA shear

Design and Construction of Dry-stack Masonry Walls - Ncm

Separate cross sections of all walls. Each cross section should clearly show the size of block used (i. e. 4, 6, 8, or 10 inch) for the building inspector and installer. Each cross section should show the wall heights involved for every storey... Vertical and horizontal reinforcing steel bar sizes, spacing and grade of steel should be clearly marked for every storey in each wall cros 2016 ICC Annual Conference Education Programs Kansas City, MO 2 •Fire Ratings (Table 706.4) 2-hour 3-hour 4-hour •Opening Protection (706.8) •Design Notes •Applications DEFINITIONS Section 706 Fire Walls A fire-resistance-rated wall having pr otected openings, which restricts th

Shear Wall Design In ETABS How To Design Shear Wall

Wind and seismic forces are resisted by an internal shear wall core. The core is made of reinforced concrete walls which have a consistent floor plan from the bottom floor of the parking garage up to the slab of the roof. Basement shear walls were designed with f'c Orthogonal wall is at right angles to connected adjacent walls. The end studs are set in the width of adjacent wall studs, and sheeting extends to cover adjacent wall ends and meet at external corner. Orthogonal ? With Gap, the second stud is adjusted to start 1 stud width in from wall end.. the wall and base slab together and reduce the shear and bending moment. They are . Foundation Engineering Chapter 8: Design and Analysis of Retaining Walls 2 economical when the wall height exceeds 8m. earth pressure (P ) behind the wall. For design purposes, tha e passive earth pressure in front of the wall, is neglected to avoid any. 2. Applicable codes and standards. The IRC is the prevailing design code used for the construction of one- or two-family dwellings in the USA. The 2015 IRC [] is the current adopted code in the State College, PA area, and will be used as the governing design code for this study.In order to construct a single-family dwelling, the homebuilder must first apply to the local code office for a. The shear strength of the joint must enable the transfer of moment and shear through it. The joint should be Constructible: Congestion of reinforcement is the main concern. 1.5.DESIGN SHEAR FOR BEAM COLUMN JOINT The design shear for beam-column joint depends upon the relative strength of beam and column at the joint

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2018 International Building Code (Ibc) Icc Digital Code

basement walls only partially surrounding the tower foot print since the two towers share architectural functions with the podium structure. To avoid drastic torsion behavior below grade, individual basement shear walls were added at the perimeter of the two towers where the basement retaining wall did not occur Reading time: 1 minute Shear keys are designed and provided in various structures to provide resistance against lateral loads like earthquake loads and sliding forces in various structure such as bridges, retaining walls, basement of residential buildings, precast buildings and culverts, masonry wall in seismic regions, and steel columns. Shear key can be constructed [

Software for The Structural Design of Concrete Masonry - Ncm

This module provides design and analysis according to the new provisions for design of masonry walls, using the P-Delta deflection considerations now included in the IBC. Click here for a video: This method lifts the restriction on H/t ratios, and performs wall analysis using the principles of ultimate strength design. The design method is very. In addition to the construction of new concrete shear walls only in the basement, the design called for multiple steel frames on each of the first 10 floors, says Joel Barron, P.E., M.ASCE, an associate principal in Thornton Tomasetti's Dallas office

D.3.3.7 - In light-frame construction, bearing or non-bearing walls, shear strength of concrete anchors less than or equal to 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter of sill plate or track to foundation or foundation stem wall need not satisfy D.3.3.6 when the design strength of the anchors is determined in accordance with D.6.2.1(c) Shear Walls 13 Frame Models Seismic Design of Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls A Guide for Practicing Engineers NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 9 Shear Walls 14 Qamaruddin, M., Al-Oraimi, S., and Hago, A. W. (1996). Mathematical model for latera l stiffness of shear walls with openings Cover photo—Collector spread into slab adjacent to shear wall. How to Cite This Publication NIST (2016). Seismic design of cast-in-place concrete diaphragms chords, and collectors: A guide for practicing engineers, Second Edition, GCR 16-917-42, NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 3, produced by the Applied Technology Council for the. Furthermore, interior shear walls are often used to resist retained earth loading. Combined, these design considerations significantly reduce pedestrian line-of-sight and impede the opportunity to observe conditions in stairs/elevators prior to entering. Architectural Consideration and the Perception of Personal Safety Figure