How to stimulate salivary glands after radiation

Rebuilding the salivary gland after radiatio

If the radiation turns out to be the likely cause, the physician may consider other diagnostic tests to see if any of the main ducts are narrowed and could be reopened. If you have experienced problems with your salivary glands following a previous 131I therapy, notify your physician before undergoing any additional 131I treatment The use of intravenous injection of recombinant IGF-1 before radiation exposure has been shown to activate endogenous Akt in the salivary glands and suppress radiation-induced apoptosis [ 16 ]. Importantly, the suppression of apoptosis correlated with improved salivary function following radiation treatment

Salivary Gland Regeneration for Oral Cancer Six-Step

  1. Chew sugarless gum to encourage saliva production. Avoid gum with sugar as the lack of saliva may increase the risk of cavities. 4  Use numbing sprays to make eating less painful. Ask your doctor about suitable over-the-counter products
  2. 3 months of radiation, 3 rounds of chemo for Stage 4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma at base of tongue. After 4 yrs, still no saliva, mouth so dry at night and thru most of day, feels like shoe leather, and using all Biotene products. any one finding relief or help in stimulating salivary glands
  3. Medicines that stimulate the salivary glands, such as pilocarpine (Salagen) or cevimeline (Evoxac). Other ways to stimulate the salivary glands, such as sucking on sugar-free candy or chewing sugarless gum. Acupuncture, which some research suggests can help with dry mouth
  4. Blend 1 cup of warm water with 1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/8 teaspoon salt. Swish in your mouth for a few seconds, then rinse out with water. Repeat every three hours. As a break from the mouthwash, keep other liquids nearby to sip and to keep your mouth and throat moist
  5. Although it occurs in approximately 40% of all adults 50 and older, it is most commonly seen in cancer patients, whose salivary glands may be affected by radiation or other medications. In addition to general discomfort, dry mouth can lead to difficulties in speaking, chewing and swallowing, decreased or altered sense of taste, and an increase.
  6. ts, suckers, etc. Normally anything that is sitting in your mouth that needs saliva it might help stimulate your salivary glands. Log in or register to post comment
  7. Purpose: A common side effect experienced by head and neck cancer patients after radiation therapy (RT) is impairment of the parotid glands' ability to produce saliva. Our purpose is to investigate the relationship between radiation dose and saliva changes in the 2 years after treatment. Methods and materials: The study population includes 142 patients treated with conformal or intensity.

Ten milliliters of lemon juice is administrated orally 20 min after the injection to stimulate salivary secretion. Base on the image acquired, time-activity curves are obtained and are used to estimate the maximum salivary secretion (Emax) and minimum salivary secretion (Emin) The salivary glands often recover 2 to 3 months after chemotherapy ends. Salivary glands may not recover completely after radiation therapy ends. The amount of saliva made by the salivary glands usually starts to decrease within 1 week after starting radiation therapy to the head or neck. It continues to decrease as treatment goes on First, he's shown that activating a particular signaling pathway can improve salivary gland function if it is done soon enough after the radiation treatment. The body can recover from obstructive damages to the salivary gland by activating this pathway, called Hedgehog, which regulates adult stem cells to repair tissues after injury

Radiation Therapy for Salivary Gland Cancer American

Sucking on something that is a bit tart or sweet can cause your salivary glands to kick into action. However, consider using something sugar free, such as sugar free mints, so that you do not damage your teeth. Try choosing a sucker, candy, or lozenge that is a bit tart. The tartness will stimulate the glands really well Stimulated salivary flow rate After chewing the bite-wax in the GC saliva-Check Buffer kit for 30 seconds, the patient was instructed to spit saliva gently into saliva collecting cups and this first sample was excluded. Then the patient kept chewing for 5 minutes and spit every 15-20 seconds, which was recorded as flow rate (mL/5 min) Salivary glands regenerate after radiation injury through SOX2-mediated secretory acinar cell replacement as shown using genetic lineage tracing and ablation methods, in combination with in vivo and ex vivo gamma radiation-induced damage models.. SOX2 + stem cells are essential to acinar cell replacement in the sublingual gland (SLG) during homeostasis and after radiation-induced damage

Mobilization of Bone Marrow Stem Cells by Granulocyte

Removal of a salivary gland doesn't affect overall saliva production, but radiation therapy often causes dry mouth, which can increase your risk for cavities and mouth infections. Here are some tips to keep your mouth moist: Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day and take a water bottle with you wherever you go. Keep your mouth clean Drink a lot of water to keep the mouth hydrated. One of the first steps you should take if you have a blocked salivary glad is to increase your water intake. Drinking water can help you to stay hydrated and increase saliva flow, which may relieve dry mouth Radiation therapy is known to be particularly effective against head and neck tumors, including salivary gland tumors. Radiation therapy can be used in one of several ways for salivary gland cancers. It may be recommended after surgery to prevent the tumor from growing back. Radiation may also be used as the sole treatment if the tumor cannot.

Delayed Salivary Gland Pain and Swelling after RAI ThyCa

Dry mouth happens when something causes the salivary glands to produce less saliva. The most common causes of dry mouth are: Medications. Radiation therapy, especially for head and neck cancer. Hundreds of medications (prescription and over-the-counter) can reduce your body's saliva production Strategiescurrently being tested in animal models include: v Increase salivary gland stem cell populations prior to radiation (Lombaert et al, 2008c) v This has been accomplished in an animal model by administering keratinocyte growth factor (N23-KGF) prior to radiation; 28

Restoration of radiation therapy-induced salivary gland

Video: How to Ease Dry Mouth Symptoms During Radiation Therap

Stimulation of Salivary Gland Function: Stimulation of salivary gland function during or after the course of radiotherapy is one of the accepted means for preservation of salivary gland secretion . A Sialogouges is defined as a substance used either locally or systemically to increase salivary flow rates [ 27 ] An early start of sucking lemon candy may induce a significant increase in salivary gland damage. Lemon candy should not be given until 24 h after radioiodine therapy. An early start of sucking lemon candy may induce a significant increase in salivary gland damage. Lemon candy should not be given until 24 h after radioiodine therapy

dry mouth and loss of salivary glands after throat

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  2. of effect.15,16 Sugarless gum or lozenges may stimulate salivary secretion in patients with residual salivary gland function. Sugar-free popsicles, plain ice cubes or ice water may be used to keep the mouth cool and moist. Eating foods high in ascorbic acid, malic acid or citric acid will stimulate the glands to increase salivary flow, but thi
  3. The salivary says, okay, we're sending saliva. BUT only if the salivary gland is NOT damaged by the radiation. Hence, if the nerves and salivary glands are both still intact, then acupuncture MAY help POST treatment. To what degree (1%, 10%, 99%) depends on each individual set of circumstances and conditions. Radiation is FIRE! It BURNS
  4. During radiation treatment, salivary gland dysfunction commences within the first week of treatment, continues to decline for the remainder of treatment and for 6-8 months after treatment is complete. r Complete recovery can take 1-5 years, however, salivary gland dysfunction can be permanent. r In patients with GvHD, the onset of salivary.
  5. Radiotherapy to the salivary glands can reduce the amount and quality of saliva produced. Usually, only the glands on the treated side of your face are affected. This means that glands on the other side should still make saliva. Having a dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Various things can help

Salivary gland conditions like sialadenitis, dry mouth and postoperative protocols for sialendoscopy procedures among other procedures on the salivary glands often require a protocol of salivary gland massage; which forms a vital part of salivary gland hygiene i.e. salivary gland massage, hydration and sialogogues Xerostomia symptoms improve over time, especially if part of the major salivary glands were spared. In the longitudinal University of Michigan study, patients receiving bilateral neck radiation with partial parotid gland sparing showed a gradual improvement in self-reported xerostomia scores that was most notable in the second year after RT; after 24 months, their scores were only slightly. Radiation therapy can damage the salivary glands, which may lead to complications, says radiation therapist Vogel. Patients may have trouble eating, swallowing or speaking, which can be a real. My experience - 14 months after radiation. I had 38 daily radiation treatments to my neck, throat. High doses. I finished a year ago February and while some of my taste has returned, my tongue seems to have been permanently affected. I cannot tolerate any kind of spice at all - even mild black pepper used sparingly

Salivary Gland Stone: Sialolith - Cape Dental Care

Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Cancer

Vegetables. Consuming vegetables that are fibrous and crunchy can help in stimulating the salivary glands. As a bonus, the fibers of vegetables help remove debris and food particles on your teeth that an insufficient production of saliva may fail to eliminate. Further, they supply your mouth with water, easing its dryness attenuation of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIT were determined and correlated with the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction on scintigraphy. RESULTS: The salivary gland volume significantly decreased with an increase in the dysfunction grade on scintigraphy for both the parotid and submandibular glands (P.001). The. However, if the underlying medical condition causing the dry mouth cannot be changed - for example, if the salivary gland has been damaged from radiation or chemotherapy treatments or is a. These agents are effective when functional salivary glands remain. After radiation therapy, although a significant proportion of the salivary glands may have been included in the radiation fields, it is rare that all the minor and major glands will be totally compromised by the radiation therapy

Five Natural Remedies for Dry Mouth (Xerostomia

Salivary gland cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that starts in the tissue of one of the salivary glands. There are a number of salivary glands inside the mouth. Causes of salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is a rare cancer. Exact cause of salivary gland cancer is unknown but several risk factors can increase the risk of developing. Analysis of clinical data to investigate the dose-volume response in salivary gland function revealed that up to 40 Gy fractionated radiation (tumor dose 60-75 Gy in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions 5.

Acupuncture for Dry Mout

7]. Because salivary gland damage by 131I radiation can permanently impair quality of life, prevention and reduction of salivary glands damage is important during 131I treatment [5, 8, 9]. Currently, to reduce radiation damage to the salivary glands, hydration with the us Primary benign and malignant salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than one gland and are detected as a growth in the parotid, submandibular area, on the palate, floor of mouth, cheeks, or lips. These enlargements should be checked by an otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon (designed to bring about homeostasis29), and Salivary Gland 2/Prime. In addition, an extra point was needled bilaterally at the radial end of the distal phalangeal crease of the index finger, on the border of the red and white skin. Patients were given sugarless mints during treatment to help stimulate salivary History of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, having received >45Gy to the parotid gland(s) due to primary or neck radiation. Abnormal parotid gland function in the targeted parotid gland as judged by absence of unstimulated parotid salivary flow and a stimulated parotid salivary flow in the targeted parotid gland <0.2 mL/min/gland.

How do I produce more saliva? Cancer Survivors Networ

radiation therapy and the initiation of acupuncture treatment ranged from two months to ten years, with a median of nine months. Three of the patients were men and four were women, ranging in age from 41-62, with an average age of 51.5 and a median age of 59. Two of the patients had not used pilocarpine to stimulate salivary secretion Patients who have received radiotherapy for head and neck cancer often suffer from the unpleasant and distressing side-effect of a dry mouth, caused by damage to their salivary glands from the.

The impact of dose on parotid salivary recovery in head

Introduction. The effects of γ-radiation upon the salivary gland have been known for over ninety years having been first described in the human in 1911 .Radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands results in xerostomia (dry mouth), and affected patients have both compromised quantity and quality of saliva that can affect the emotional and systemic well-being of these individuals Head and neck cancers, which comprise 5% of overall cancer treatments, rank 8th most expensive to treat in the United States today. Hyperbaric oxygen is being considered for the therapy of radiated salivary glands because it has been shown to stimulate capillary angiogenesis and fibroplasia in radiation treated tissues

To describe long-term changes in time of quality of life (QOL) and the relation with parotid salivary output in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy. Forty-four patients completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30(+3) and the EORTC-QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before treatment, 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and at least 3.5 years after treatment Radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck (including brachytherapy for thyroid cancers) where the salivary glands are close to or within the field irradiated is another major cause of xerostomia. A radiation dose of 52 Gy is sufficient to cause severe salivary dysfunction

Fluoride application is recommended whenever radiation therapy is directed at the oral cavity (mouth) and the salivary glands. Rehabilitation may be a major part of follow-up care after head-and-neck cancer treatment. People may need physical therapy and speech therapy to regain skills, such as talking and swallowing Collectively, these histological analyses revealed that radiation-damaged salivary gland tissue could be rescued by transplantation of submandibular gland-derived salisphere cells. Quantification of the total surface area comprising of acinar cells revealed a strong increase after salivary gland stem cell transplantation in most transplanted. Salivary levels of microorganisms (Streptococcus mutants and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Candida albicans are usually used for assessing susceptibility to dental caries, and oral candidiasis, respectively (Fig. 2).Evaluation of salivary gland function plays an important role in maintaining oral health and should be included in the first visit of each new patient, as well in the observations. lubricants, and cholinergic agonists to stimulate salivary gland function. Since radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction is irreversible, treatment methods for regeneration of salivary glands and physiological secretion of saliva from reconstituted glands are needed. Stem cells have self-renewal and multilineage differentiatio

A Review on the Assessment of Radiation Induced Salivary

Deep learning-based delineation of organs-at-risk for radiotherapy purposes has been investigated to reduce the time-intensiveness and inter-/intra-observer variability associated with manual delineation. We systematically evaluated ways to improve the performance and reliability of deep learning for organ-at-risk segmentation, with the salivary glands as the paradigm People with salivary gland cancer may also experience weakness or numbness on one side of the face, swelling or pain in the salivary glands, and difficulty swallowing. Although the causes of salivary gland cancer are unknown, older age and radiation exposure to the head and neck may increase a person's risk of developing this type of cancer A mouth-watering method to stimulate saliva production and bolster those buds is to sprinkle red pepper (cayenne) on your food or mix it into your favorite juice (tomato juice seems most compatible). Better yet, prepare an entire meal around red pepper, which acts as nature's wake-up call, stimulating salivary glands, sweat glands, and tear ducts

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation

and the neck. The evaluation of salivary gland toxicity was performed at 12, 18, and 24 months after RT, using both a self-assessed xerostomia questionnaire and toxicity score according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria (23). All patients were treated with IMRT and concomi-tant CHT (cisplatinum 100 mg/m2 for three cycles every 21. The parotid glands are the largest salivary glands and located on either side of the cheek in front part of the ear to the mid cheek and from the cheekbone to the lower edge of the jaw. Critical in surgery is preservation of the facial nerve that exits the skull below the ear and passes into and through the parotid gland as it divides into about five branches that go onto and innervate the. Salivary gland cancers are more common in men than in women. Radiation exposure . Radiation treatment to the head and neck area for other medical reasons increases your risk of salivary gland cancer. Workplace exposure to certain radioactive substances may also increase the risk of salivary gland cancer. Family history . Very rarely, members of. * Salivary glands were entirely within the field of radiation. t Salivary glands were partially irradiated. $ The affected parotid gland was resected. Opposed lateral ports were irradiated. Contralateral parotid was used for flow rates. 4 Patient received tumoricidal radiation to abdominal and pelvic ports. After 22 9 Gy to mantle field.

Restoring moisture to the mouth - Vital Recor

  1. Ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of developing salivary gland neoplasms (1-7). Evidence that salivary gland tumors can be caused by ionizing radiation has accumulated from case reports, clinical series (8-12), cohort studies of patients treated with head and neck irradiation for benign childhood conditions (4;5)
  2. Tumors: Primary benign and malignant salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than one gland and are detected as a growth in the parotid, submandibular area, on the palate, floor of mouth, cheeks, or lips. An otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements
  3. Salivary gland cancer. The salivary glands, located in and around the mouth and throat, are responsible for producing saliva. This aids digestion and adds moisture to the mouth, making it easier to chew and swallow. Salivary gland cancer is rare, with one out of 100,000 adults estimated to be diagnosed in 2021, according to the American Society.
  4. Treatment Strategy. Study. Study Characteristics. Conclusions Radioiodine Irradiation Enhance flow of saliva by gland massage and by avoiding dehydration; use of sialogogues to stimulate salivary secretion; antibacterial / anti-inflammatory medication as needed . Multiple reports include this regimen as standard , . No critical randomized controlled studies identified for analysi
  5. Acute xerostomia from radiation is due to an inflammatory reaction, while late xerostomia, which can occur up to one year after radiation therapy, results from fibrosis of the salivary gland and is usually permanent.16 Radiation causes changes in the serous secretory cells, resulting in a reduction in salivary output and increased viscosity of.
  6. on days 4 through 8 (~24 hours apart) after radiation treatment as previously described [16]. This dose of IGF-1 was chosen because it induces maximal activation of signal transduction pathways in the salivary gland and suppresses radiation-induced loss of salivary gland function [16]. Animals were maintained and treated i
  7. Salivary gland cancer and its treatment can affect how you eat. There are ways to make it easier to cope. Dry mouth. If you've only had surgery for your cancer, you might not notice a great deal of difference in how moist your mouth is. Your other salivary glands will make enough saliva to keep your mouth moist

3 Ways to Produce Saliva - wikiHo

  1. lubricants, and cholinergic agonists to stimulate salivary gland function. Since radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction is irreversible, treatment methods for regeneration of salivary glands and physiological secretion of saliva from reconstituted glands are needed. Stem cells have self-renewal and multilineage differentiatio
  2. ipig salivary glands following fractionated exposure to 70 Gy of ionizing radiation: an animal model for human radiation-induced salivary gland injury. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96: 267 -274
  3. Salivary gland cancer is a rare cancer that forms in tissues of the gland in the mouth that makes saliva. Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people. Being exposed to certain types of radiation may increase the risk of salivary cancer. Signs of salivary gland cancer include a lump or trouble swallowing. Learn about salivary gland cancer.
  4. ished salivary flow) and xerostomia (i.e., the subjective sensation of a dry mouth) often observed in response to external radiotherapy in the head and neck region may have a massive impact on patient's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (QoL) [].Importantly, the impact of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia on oral.
  5. Sialadenitis can happen after receiving radiation treatment for cancer. In some cases, pus drains from the salivary ducts into the mouth. If the infection spreads beyond the salivary gland, you may develop a •Antibiotics to cure the infection •Sour candies or gum to stimulate saliva secretion. Sialadenitis usually goes away within a.
  6. or ones. The salivary glands have a series of small ducts that emit saliva in the form of mucous secretions. Saliva is gradually released by parasympathetic stimulation in the brain

Although caspase is activated in salivary glands after irradiation, there is minimal apoptosis after a single dose of radiation (2.5 to 17.5 Gy) (13, 15), which cannot account for the early onset and persistent loss of acinar cell function. Our data suggest a role for caspase-3 in depletion of STIM1, thus linking the activated protease to loss. Radiation therapy in the head and neck area causes the most significant cases of dry mouth versus surgery and chemotherapy. After radiation therapy to the head and neck region, irradiated salivary glands produce little or no salivary secretions and can be a major discomfort for oral and pharyngeal cancer patients

Radiation to the head or neck can end up damaging the salivary glands, resulting in a significant decrease in saliva production. Aging: People tend to become more susceptible to dry mouth with advancing age on account of several contributing factors. In general, older adults are prone to extensive use of a wide range of medications, many of which are known to cause dry mouth The gland's swelling will subside when salivary stimulation ceases, and saliva is secreted out of the gland. Depend on the stone's size, and this may take a few minutes to a few hours. As described in the formation of the stone section above, stasis of the saliva may lead to the inflowing of bacteria into the gland causing infection. A salivary gland infection caused by a benign tumor may cause an enlargement of the glands. Malignant ( cancerous ) tumors can grow quickly and cause loss of movement in the affected side of the face [40][41][42] Parotid glands are more radiosensitive once they are compounded mainly of serous acinar cells, which are more affected by radiation than mucous or ductal cells. 6,43 However, other authors did not agree that submandibular glands are less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. 6 In the present study, we observed an increase in.

Saliva Production. Saliva is produced and secreted by major and minor salivary glands lining the inner lip and soft palate. Chewing is the most efficient way to stimulate salivary flow. It causes muscles to compress the salivary glands, releasing saliva. The mouth-watering taste and consistency of foods also affect saliva production You don't want to increase absorption in salivary glands when your blood levels are high. You pee out half of the RAI in 24 hours and nearly all in 48. Not medically confirmed ideas are 1. Cold compresses over salivary glands every 4 hours for 48 hours and then salivary stimulation with lemon This study hypothesize that chewing gum can stimulate salivary flow from the residual functional salivary glands and thereby improving the patient's oral well-being. Primary endpoint: - To assess whether the difference between the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow after a one-month period of using chewing gum will result in improved.

Effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland function in

  1. Prevention. A dry mouth is common and can often be prevented. Try some of the following prevention measures: Drink 2 qt (2 L) of water a day. This is the same as eight 8 fl oz (250 mL) glasses of water. Use a humidifier in your home, especially in the bedroom. Breathe through your nose rather than through your mouth
  2. In most cases, there is no clear cause. However, listed below are a few known risk factors for developing salivary gland cancer. Radiation. Studies show that individuals have an increased risk of developing salivary gland cancer after exposure to high levels of radiation from radioactive explosions or external radiation treatment for other cancers
  3. Radiation therapy to your face, head, or neck can cause dry mouth. It can take over 6 months after your treatment ends for your salivary glands to begin producing saliva again. Although you can expect to see some improvement in this condition in the first year after treatment, some people continue to suffer from some level of chronic dry mouth.
  4. Radiation. The most common use of radiation for the treatment of salivary gland cancers is called adjuvant radiation, which is radiation given after surgery in order to decrease the chances that the tumor will come back. Reasons for Post-Surgical Radiation. A doctor may recommend post-surgical radiation in a few scenarios
  5. The salivary glands often; recover 2 to 3 months after chemotherapy ends. Salivary glands may not recover completely after radiation therapy ends. The amount of saliva made by the salivary glands usually starts to decrease within 1 week after starting radiation therapy to the head or neck. It continues to decrease as treatment goes on
  6. ishes up to 20%
  7. jected in the glands under local anesthesia using ultrasonic guidance. The serous epithelia, salivary flow rate, and the saliva quality significantly improved after 4 months in the stem cell treatment group without major adverse effects. Therefore, the autologous adipose-derived MSC therapy was deemed safe and efficacious for radiation.

Not only do the nerves stimulate salivary gland secretion, but they also may play a role in the ability of the salivary glands to regenerate, avoid atrophy, and maintain their function. This role of the autonomic nerves could help advance future therapies for chronic oral dryness or salivary gland atrophy An additional important factor is one reported recently by Coppes et al from the University Hospital in Groningen, the Netherlands.[2] They irradiated different parts of rat salivary glands using high-precision proton radiation, and found regional differences in dose-salivary production relationships salivary gland dysfunction due to radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction is a predictable side effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Pilocarpine hydrochloride (a choline ester) is licensed in many countries for the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Other parasympathomimetics have als Salivary flow from glands on the contralateral side may increase in an attempt to compensate for what has been lost on the affected side. Recovery of the less radiosensitive mucous glands is helpful for residual lubrication after treatment. After radiation, saliva turns yellowish-brown in color and is more viscous A number of strategies to improve salivary gland function after radiation therapy have been developed, but all are symptomatic treatments only able to stimulate the function of the residual salivary gland tissue or provide short-term lubrication. These strategies include pharmacological agents;.

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Gland IR. Eight weeks after eGFP bone marrow transplantation, the salivary glands of the chimeric mice were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy (as described above), now shielding the rest of the body with 3 mm lead ().This dose is known to induce sufficient damage without compromising the general health of the animals and is biologically equivalent to a clinical relevant. Salivary Gland Disorders. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. There are three pairs of relatively large, major salivary glands: Parotid glands. Located in the upper part of each cheek, close to the ear. The duct of each parotid gland empties onto the inside of the cheek, near the molars of the upper jaw The six salivary glands -- one in each cheek, called the parotid glands; two under the roof of the mouth, called the sublingual glands; and two at the back of the mouth, called the submandibular glands -- all produce saliva. The submandibular glands produce the most saliva, around 70 percent of the total, according to Cedars-Sinai A pilot study of two-stage autologous transplantation of one submandibular gland to the forearm during radiation therapy and reimplantation of the gland to the floor of the mouth 2-3 months after radiation therapy has also indicated the potential to reduce radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia (123, 124) The authors analysed, using salivary gland scintigraphy, the changes in salivary gland uptake and excretion in 90 patients before and 5 to 14 months (mean 7.4) after thyroid remnant ablation. The administered RAI activities ranged from 3.7 to 9.3 GBq (3.7, 5.6, 7.4 and 9.3 GBq in 38, 46, 3 and 3 patients, respectively) Salivary gland hypofunction, ie, inadequate saliva, may be caused by many conditions. Causes of or conditions associated with xerostomia, which is the sensation of dry mouth, and/or salivary hypofunction are wide ranging and include mouth breathing, smoking tobacco or marijuana, candidiasis, menopause, aging, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, radiation therapy, and a variety of other medical.